## Units and Measurements

1. Explain parallax method to measure the largest distances.

2. Explain how diameter of a planet can be measured.

3. How to estimate the small distances? Explain a scientific method.

4. Define the terms Accuracy, precision and error.

5. What is an error? Explain their types.

6. How to measure the magnitude of an error? Give different methods to measure the magnitude of error.

7. Define the term significant figure.

8. What is dimensional formula? What are its applications? Explain each with an example.

9. Explain about fundamental forces in nature.

## Motion in a Straight Line

1. Define the following terms.

a. Distance

b. Displacement

c. Uniform motion

d. Average speed

e. Average velocity

f. Instantaneous speed

g. Instantaneous velocity.

h. Acceleration

2. Derive kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion.

3. Derive the equations for maximum height achieved by an object and time of flight.

4. Define the term relative velocity. Give an example and explain.

5. Discuss various possibilities of s-t graph, v-t graph and a-t graph.

## Motion in a plane

1. Define the terms scalar and vector. Give examples for each.

2. Explain different properties of vector addition and subtraction.

3. How to resolve a vector. Explain with an example.

4. Define Scalar product (Dot product) and vector product(Cross product)

5. Discuss vector addition in detail. And hence prove parallelogram law.

6. Using vector notation, define velocity and acceleration.

7. Explain the motion of a particle using vector notation.

8. Define projectile. Explain its motion using a graph. Define the set of equations for its position and velocity. And hence prove that its path is parabola.

9. Derive the equations for time of flight, maximum height achieved by a projectile and range.

10. Define circular motion. Find an equation to calculate the acceleration of an object, which is in uniform circular motion. Show that it is directed towards centre of orbit.

## Laws of motion

1. What is law of inertia? Explain Newton’s I law of motion.

2. Define momentum. Explain Newton’s II law of motion.

3. Discuss the relation between force acting on an object and its momentum

4. Discuss the relation between force acting on an object and its acceleration.

5. Define impulse. Give its units and dimensional formula.

6. Explain Newton’s III law of motion.

7. Explain the law of conservation of momentum.

8. Define equilibrium. Explain the conditions to maintain a particle in equilibrium condition.

9. What is force? Explain the types of force.

10. Define friction. What is its importance/limitations. Explain different types.

11. Explain the motion of a car in curved road. What are the forces acting on the car? What one we do in order to reduce the centrifugal force acting on this vehicle?

12. Explain the banking of roads. Why t is important? Derive an equation for maximum velocity of a vehicle in a curved road.

## Work, Energy and Power

1. Define the term work. Give its unit.

2. Explain Kinetic energy of a particle.

3. Explain the work energy theorem.

4. Derive an equation for work done by a variable force.

5. Explain the work energy theorem for a variable force.

6. Define the term potential energy.

7. Explain the conservation of mechanical energy. Give any two examples.

8. Explain the behavior of a spring under the influence of a force F. Derive an equation for its potential energy. Explain the energy-displacement curve.

9. Explain the various forms of energy. Define the term power. Give its different units.

10. Define collision. Explain elastic one dimensional collision.

11. Explain elastic two dimensional collision.

12. Explain in-elastic two dimensional collision.

13. Explain in-elastic one dimensional collision.

## System of Particles and Rotational Motion

1. Define rigid body. Give examples.

2. Define

a. Angle

b. Angular velocity

c. Angular acceleration

d. Translational motion

e. Rotational motion

f. Rolling

3. Define centre of mass. Give the set of equations for CM in 3-dimensional space.

4. Give the position vector equation for CM in 3-dimensional space.

5. Using an example, explain the motion of centre of mass.

6. Find an expression for the linear momentum of system of particles. Show that it is Newton’s II law of motion for extended particles.

7. Find a relation between angular velocity and linear velocity.

8. Define

a. Momentum

b. Angular momentum

c. Torque

d. Force

9. Define Moment of force. Write an equation for it.

10. Discuss the angular momentum of a particle and system of particles.

11. Discuss the “law of conservation of linear momentum”

12. Discuss the “law of conservation of angular momentum”

13. What is equilibrium state of a body? Write the set of equations to represent this equilibrium state.

14. Discuss the principle of moments. And derive a relation between load and effort.

15. Define centre of gravity. Explain how one can determine the CG of an irregular object.

16. Define moment of inertia. Give a general equation for it. Write its units.

17. State

a. Theorem of parallel axes

b. Theorem of perpendicular axes.

18. Write the equations for moment of inertia of

a. Thin circular ring (axis through centre)

b. Thin circular ring (axis through diameter)

c. Thin rod ( axis at its mid-point)

d. Thin disc (axis at the centre)

e. Thin disc (axis through diameter)

f. Hallow cylinder (axis of cylinder)

g. Solid cylinder ( axis of cylinder)

h. Solid sphere (axis through centre)

19. Explain rolling motion. Write an equation for kinetic energy of a rolling object.

## GRAVITATION

1. State and explain Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

2. Show that areal velocity of a planet is constant.

3. State Newton’s universal law of gravitation.

4. What is central force?

5. How the acceleration due to gravity varies at different regions on Earth’s surface.

6. Explain the variation of acceleration due to gravity with height.

7. Write short notes on gravitational potential energy.

8. Define escape speed and orbital velocity. Write an expression for each.

9. What is earth satellite? Derive an equation for time period of such satellite.

10. Show that square of time period of a satellite is proportional to cube of its orbital radius.

11. Derive an equation for energy of an orbiting satellite.

12. Discuss in detail about

a. Geostationary satellite

b. Polar satellite

c. Earth satellite.

## Thermal Properties of Matter

1. Define heat and temperature.

2. Derive Ideal gas equation and discuss the consequences of this equation.

3. “Only positive scale exists on Kelvin scale of temperature” Write the reasons.

4. Define thermal expansion. What are the different types? Explain each with an equation.

5. Define i) coefficient of linear expansion, ii) coefficient of area expansion iii) coefficient of volume expansion.

6. Define thermal stress. Give its importance.

7. Define i) Heat capacity ii) Specific heat capacity and iii) Molar specific heat capacity.

8. What is calorimetry? What is its importance in thermodynamics?

9. Define latent heat. Give its significance during the change of state.

10. Explain latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization.

11. Explain the different types of heat transfer mechanisms.

12. Explain the Newton’s law of cooling.

## Kinetic Theory of Gasses

1. Explain the molecular nature of matter.

2. Explain how a gas behaves. (OR) Explain the behavior of gasses using ideal gas equation. Plot a graph between temperature and pressure. Explain how it behaves at various values of P and T.

3. Explain the resultant pressure when a mixture of gasses is present at a temperature T.

4. Explain Boyle’s law and Charles law.

5. Write the postulates of Kinetic theory of gasses and give its consequences.

6. Derive an equation for pressure of an ideal gas, using kinetic theory.

7. Find an expression to relate the temperature of a gas and its pressure.

8. What is law of equipartition of energy? What are the different terms involved in it? Explain with equation.

9. Discuss the specific heat capacity of i) monoatomic ii) Diatomic and iii) polyatomic gasses.

10. Explain the specific heat capacity in case of Solids and liquids.

11. Define “Mean free path”. Give its significance.

12. Write the equations for average velocity and RMS velocity for a gas, at a temperature T K.

## Thermodynamics

1. Define heat and temperature of a body. With reference to this explain thermal equilibrium of two objects.

2. Explain the terms adiabatic and diathermic. And hence state the zeroth law of thermodynamics.

3. Define internal energy of a system.

4. Explain the different types of systems. Give example for each.

5. State the first law of thermodynamics. Write a mathematical equation for it.

6. Write the expressions for specific heat capacity of a gas, using first law of thermodynamics.

7. Explain different thermodynamic processes using, first law of thermodynamics.

8. Derive an expression for work done in i) Isothermal process and ii) Adiabatic process.

9. Explain isobaric and isochoric processes.

10. What is a heat engine? What are the characteristics of a heat engine? Write an equation for its efficiency.

11. Explain the working of heat pumps and refrigerators.

12. State the second law of thermodynamics. (Kelvin statement and Clausius statement)

13. Explain reversible and irreversible processes.

14. Explain the working of Carnot’s heat engine. Give its PV diagram. Derive the expression for work performed by this engine and hence obtain an expression for efficiency.

## OSCILLATIONS

1. Define the terms

a. Oscillation

b. Periodic motion

c. Time period

d. Frequency

2. Express the relation between displacement and position of an oscillating particle.

3. Define simple harmonic motion.

4. Compare the simple harmonic motion with uniform circular motion. And hence obtain the equation for its displacement.

5. Obtain the equations for velocity and acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator, using displacement equation. Graphically represent the variations of x,v and a with time.

6. Discuss the force law of simple harmonic motion

OR

Derive a second order differential equation for simple harmonic motion.

7. Derive an expression for energy stored in a simple harmonic oscillator.

8. Discuss the variations of KE and PE of a simple harmonic oscillator with time.

9. Explain the motion of

a. spring mass system

b. simple pendulum

using simple harmonic motion.

10. Explain damped harmonic motion. Write a differential equation for damped harmonic oscillator.

11. Explain the concept of resonance.

12. Discuss forced harmonic oscillations. Write a differential equation for forced oscillations.

## WAVES

1. What is a wave? Discuss their classification based on their nature and propagation.

2. Define the following and give their units

a. Amplitude

b. Wavelength

c. Angular wave number/Wave vector

d. Period, angular frequency and frequency

3. Derive an equation for speed of a travelling wave in terms of its wavelength and frequency.

4. Derive an equation for velocity of a transverse wave in stretched string.

5. Derive an equation for speed of longitudinal wave in a given medium ( in terms of material properties)

6. Explain the principle of superposition of waves. Derive an equation for resultant wave.

7. Explain how standing waves are produces. Derive an equation for resultant displacement.

8. Define nodes and ant-nodes.

9. Discuss about harmonics/modes of vibrations using a mathematical equation.

10. Discuss the laws of stretched strings.

11. When beats will forms? Give an example of formation of beats.

12. Explain Doppler Effect. Write the mathematical expressions for observed frequency in different cases.

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