__Units and Measurements__

__Units and Measurements__

1. **Explain parallax method to measure the largest distances. **

**2. Explain how diameter of a planet can be measured.**

**3. How to estimate the small distances? Explain a scientific method. **

**4. Define the terms Accuracy, precision and error. **

**5. What is an error? Explain their types. **

**6. How to measure the magnitude of an error? Give different methods to measure the magnitude of error. **

**7. Define the term significant figure.**

**8. What is dimensional formula? What are its applications? Explain each with an example.**

**9. Explain about fundamental forces in nature.**

__Motion in a Straight Line__

__Motion in a Straight Line__

1. **Define the following terms. **

**a. Distance **

**b. Displacement**

**c. Uniform motion**

**d. Average speed**

**e. Average velocity**

**f. Instantaneous speed**

**g. Instantaneous velocity. **

**h. Acceleration**

**2. Derive kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion. **

**3. Derive the equations for maximum height achieved by an object and time of flight. **

**4. Define the term relative velocity. Give an example and explain. **

**5. Discuss various possibilities of s-t graph, v-t graph and a-t graph. **

__Motion in a plane__

__Motion in a plane__

1. **Define the terms scalar and vector. Give examples for each. **

**2. Explain different properties of vector addition and subtraction. **

**3. How to resolve a vector. Explain with an example. **

**4. Define Scalar product (Dot product) and vector product(Cross product)**

**5. Discuss vector addition in detail. And hence prove parallelogram law. **

**6. Using vector notation, define velocity and acceleration. **

**7. Explain the motion of a particle using vector notation. **

**8. Define projectile. Explain its motion using a graph. Define the set of equations for its position and velocity. And hence prove that its path is parabola. **

**9. Derive the equations for time of flight, maximum height achieved by a projectile and range. **

**10. Define circular motion. Find an equation to calculate the acceleration of an object, which is in uniform circular motion. Show that it is directed towards centre of orbit. **

__Laws of motion__

__Laws of motion__

1. **What is law of inertia? Explain Newton’s I law of motion. **

**2. Define momentum. Explain Newton’s II law of motion. **

**3. Discuss the relation between force acting on an object and its momentum **

**4. Discuss the relation between force acting on an object and its acceleration. **

**5. Define impulse. Give its units and dimensional formula. **

**6. Explain Newton’s III law of motion. **

**7. Explain the law of conservation of momentum. **

**8. Define equilibrium. Explain the conditions to maintain a particle in equilibrium condition. **

**9. What is force? Explain the types of force. **

**10. Define friction. What is its importance/limitations. Explain different types. **

**11. Explain the motion of a car in curved road. What are the forces acting on the car? What one we do in order to reduce the centrifugal force acting on this vehicle?**

**12. Explain the banking of roads. Why t is important? Derive an equation for maximum velocity of a vehicle in a curved road. **

__Work, Energy and Power__

__Work, Energy and Power__

1. **Define the term work. Give its unit. **

**2. Explain Kinetic energy of a particle. **

**3. Explain the work energy theorem. **

**4. Derive an equation for work done by a variable force.**

**5. Explain the work energy theorem for a variable force. **

**6. Define the term potential energy. **

**7. Explain the conservation of mechanical energy. Give any two examples. **

**8. Explain the behavior of a spring under the influence of a force F. Derive an equation for its potential energy. Explain the energy-displacement curve.**

**9. Explain the various forms of energy. Define the term power. Give its different units. **

**10. Define collision. Explain elastic one dimensional collision. **

**11. Explain elastic two dimensional collision. **

**12. Explain in-elastic two dimensional collision. **

**13. Explain in-elastic one dimensional collision.**

__System of Particles and Rotational Motion__

__System of Particles and Rotational Motion__

1. **Define rigid body. Give examples. **

**2. Define**

** **

**a. Angle **

**b. Angular velocity**

**c. Angular acceleration **

**d. Translational motion**

**e. Rotational motion **

**f. Rolling **

** **

**3. Define centre of mass. Give the set of equations for CM in 3-dimensional space. **

**4. Give the position vector equation for CM in 3-dimensional space. **

**5. Using an example, explain the motion of centre of mass. **

**6. Find an expression for the linear momentum of system of particles. Show that it is Newton’s II law of motion for extended particles.**

**7. Find a relation between angular velocity and linear velocity. **

**8. Define **

**a. Momentum**

**b. Angular momentum **

**c. Torque **

**d. Force **

**9. Define Moment of force. Write an equation for it. **

**10. Discuss the angular momentum of a particle and system of particles. **

**11. Discuss the “law of conservation of linear momentum”**

**12. Discuss the “law of conservation of angular momentum”**

**13. What is ***equilibrium*** state of a body? Write the set of equations to represent this equilibrium state. **

**14. Discuss the principle of moments. And derive a relation between load and effort. **

**15. Define centre of gravity. Explain how one can determine the CG of an irregular object. **

**16. Define moment of inertia. Give a general equation for it. Write its units. **

**17. State**

**a. Theorem of parallel axes**

**b. Theorem of perpendicular axes. **

**18. Write the equations for moment of inertia of **

**a. Thin circular ring (axis through centre)**

**b. Thin circular ring (axis through diameter)**

**c. Thin rod ( axis at its mid-point)**

**d. Thin disc (axis at the centre)**

**e. Thin disc (axis through diameter)**

**f. Hallow cylinder (axis of cylinder) **

**g. Solid cylinder ( axis of cylinder)**

**h. Solid sphere (axis through centre) **

**19. Explain rolling motion. Write an equation for kinetic energy of a rolling object. **

__GRAVITATION__

__GRAVITATION__

1. **State and explain Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. **

**2. Show that areal velocity of a planet is constant. **

**3. State Newton’s universal law of gravitation. **

**4. What is central force? **

**5. How the acceleration due to gravity varies at different regions on Earth’s surface. **

**6. Explain the variation of acceleration due to gravity with height. **

**7. Write short notes on gravitational potential energy. **

**8. Define escape speed and orbital velocity. Write an expression for each. **

**9. What is earth satellite? Derive an equation for time period of such satellite. **

**10. Show that square of time period of a satellite is proportional to cube of its orbital radius. **

**11. Derive an equation for energy of an orbiting satellite. **

**12. Discuss in detail about**

**a. Geostationary satellite**

**b. Polar satellite**

**c. Earth satellite. **

*Thermal Properties of Matter*

*Thermal Properties of Matter*

1. **Define heat and temperature.**

**2. Derive Ideal gas equation and discuss the consequences of this equation. **

**3. “Only positive scale exists on Kelvin scale of temperature” Write the reasons. **

**4. Define thermal expansion. What are the different types? Explain each with an equation. **

**5. Define i) coefficient of linear expansion, ii) coefficient of area expansion iii) coefficient of volume expansion.**

**6. Define thermal stress. Give its importance. **

**7. Define i) Heat capacity ii) Specific heat capacity and iii) Molar specific heat capacity. **

**8. What is calorimetry? What is its importance in thermodynamics? **

**9. Define latent heat. Give its significance during the change of state. **

**10. Explain latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization. **

**11. Explain the different types of heat transfer mechanisms. **

**12. Explain the Newton’s law of cooling. **

*Kinetic Theory of Gasses*

*Kinetic Theory of Gasses*

1. **Explain the molecular nature of matter. **

**2. Explain how a gas behaves. (OR) Explain the behavior of gasses using ideal gas equation. Plot a graph between temperature and pressure. Explain how it behaves at various values of P and T. **

**3. Explain the resultant pressure when a mixture of gasses is present at a temperature T. **

**4. Explain Boyle’s law and Charles law.**

**5. Write the postulates of Kinetic theory of gasses and give its consequences. **

**6. Derive an equation for pressure of an ideal gas, using kinetic theory. **

**7. Find an expression to relate the temperature of a gas and its pressure. **

**8. What is law of equipartition of energy? What are the different terms involved in it? Explain with equation. **

**9. Discuss the specific heat capacity of i) monoatomic ii) Diatomic and iii) polyatomic gasses. **

**10. Explain the specific heat capacity in case of Solids and liquids. **

**11. Define “Mean free path”. Give its significance. **

**12. Write the equations for average velocity and RMS velocity for a gas, at a temperature T K. **

*Thermodynamics*

*Thermodynamics*

1. **Define heat and temperature of a body. With reference to this explain thermal equilibrium of two objects. **

**2. Explain the terms adiabatic and diathermic. And hence state the zeroth law of thermodynamics. **

**3. Define internal energy of a system. **

**4. Explain the different types of systems. Give example for each. **

**5. State the first law of thermodynamics. Write a mathematical equation for it. **

**6. Write the expressions for specific heat capacity of a gas, using first law of thermodynamics. **

**7. Explain different thermodynamic processes using, first law of thermodynamics. **

**8. Derive an expression for work done in i) Isothermal process and ii) Adiabatic process. **

**9. Explain isobaric and isochoric processes. **

**10. What is a heat engine? What are the characteristics of a heat engine? Write an equation for its efficiency. **

**11. Explain the working of heat pumps and refrigerators. **

**12. State the second law of thermodynamics. (Kelvin statement and Clausius statement) **

**13. Explain reversible and irreversible processes.**

**14. Explain the working of Carnot’s heat engine. Give its ***PV*** diagram. Derive the expression for work performed by this engine and hence obtain an expression for efficiency. **

__OSCILLATIONS__

__OSCILLATIONS__

1. **Define the terms**

** a. Oscillation**

**b. Periodic motion**

**c. Time period **

**d. Frequency **

**2. Express the relation between displacement and position of an oscillating particle. **

**3. Define simple harmonic motion.**

**4. Compare the simple harmonic motion with uniform circular motion. And hence obtain the equation for its displacement. **

**5. Obtain the equations for velocity and acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator, using displacement equation. Graphically represent the variations of ***x,v and a *** with time.**

**6. Discuss the force law of simple harmonic motion **

** OR**

**Derive a second order differential equation for simple harmonic motion. **

**7. Derive an expression for energy stored in a simple harmonic oscillator. **

**8. Discuss the variations of KE and PE of a simple harmonic oscillator with time.**

**9. Explain the motion of **

**a. spring mass system **

**b. simple pendulum **

**using simple harmonic motion. **

**10. Explain damped harmonic motion. Write a differential equation for damped harmonic oscillator. **

**11. Explain the concept of resonance. **

**12. Discuss forced harmonic oscillations. Write a differential equation for forced oscillations. **

__WAVES__

__WAVES__

1. **What is a wave? Discuss their classification based on their nature and propagation. **

**2. Define the following and give their units**

**a. Amplitude**

**b. Wavelength**

**c. Angular wave number/Wave vector**

**d. Period, angular frequency and frequency **

**3. Derive an equation for speed of a travelling wave in terms of its wavelength and frequency. **

**4. Derive an equation for velocity of a transverse wave in stretched string. **

**5. Derive an equation for speed of longitudinal wave in a given medium ( in terms of material properties)**

**6. Explain the principle of superposition of waves. Derive an equation for resultant wave. **

**7. Explain how standing waves are produces. Derive an equation for resultant displacement. **

**8. Define nodes and ant-nodes. **

**9. Discuss about harmonics/modes of vibrations using a mathematical equation. **

**10. Discuss the laws of stretched strings. **

**11. When beats will forms? Give an example of formation of beats.**

**12. Explain Doppler Effect. Write the mathematical expressions for observed frequency in different cases. **

## Comments